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农田生态系统对水环境的影响研究获进展

2014-07-16 09:38 | 作者: 中国科学院 | 标签: 农田生态系统

近年,农业对环境的影响引起国内外的共同关注(Godfray et al., 2010, Science; Mueller et al., 2012, Nature)。全球特别是华北氮过量问题已经引起各国科学家的高度关注(Liu et al., 2009; Ju et al., 2009)。肥料的过度使用和不恰当的施用时机和方法导致了低养分利用效率和环境污染,特别是高产区。全球平均氮回收率为59%,而我国部分地区小麦的仅28.2%,玉米26.1%,甚至仅10%左右。过量的氮磷通过淋溶和径流损失,导致饮用水污染(Tilman et al., 1999),导致湖泊、水库、河口、沿海地带富营养化、地下水污染、饮用水中硝态氮浓度升高。

中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所李发东研究员与其研究团队自2010年起,通过区域上对黄河下游引黄灌区至黄河三角洲地区的大规模调查采样,文献资料分析,建立黄河下游引黄灌区不同水体的理化数据库、同位素、硝酸盐、重金属物质数据库,进行地表水-地下水水质演化过程研究;借助于水化学和同位素等方法,解析了生态水文过程对农田生态系统物质运移的影响及其环境效应;进而从流域尺度层面解析黄河下游引黄灌区农田生态系统物质的分布格局-过程-机理;为评价农业对区域环境的影响提供了数据支撑。

研究结果显示,黄河下游引黄灌区区域上地表水体中的重金属含量高于地下水,重金属的空间分布与水体流向呈现一定的相关性,研究区强烈的地表水-地下水交互作用影响了重金属的空间分布,同时农业活动和工业活动增加了水体重金属的含量。相关研究成果发表于Science of the Total Environment, Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, Water Science and Technology 等杂志。   

该研究在中科院“百人计划”和自然基金项目(NO.31170414、41271047和41201514)的共同资助下完成。

主要相关研究论文:

1. Li Jing, Li Fadong*, Liu Qiang, Zhang Yan, Zhao Guangshuai. Trace metal pollution and its transfer in surface water and groundwater in a Yellow River alluvial fan: evidence from isotopes and hydrochemistry. Science of the Total Environment, 2014, 472, 979–988 (SCI).

2. Li Jing, Li Fadong*, Liu Qiang, Zhang Yan, Zhao Guangshuai, Ouyang Zhu. Influence of long term fertilization on the crop production and soil quality on a new-born land: a case study in the Yellow River Delta in China. Agronomy Journal. 2014, 106(1): 143-151 (SCI).

3. Li Jing, Li Fadong*, Liu Qiang, Song Shuai, Zhang Yan, Zhao Guangshuai. Impacts of Yellow River irrigation practice on trace metals in surface water: a case study in the Henan-Liaocheng Irrigation Area, China. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment. 2014, 20(4): 1042-1057 (SCI).

4. Li Jing, Li Fadong*, Song Shuai, Zhang Yan, Zhao Guangshuai, Liu Qiang. Spatial distribution and sources of dissolved trace metals in surface water of the Wei River, China. Water Science and Technology. 2013, 67(4): 817-823 (SCI).

5. Shuai Song, Fadong Li*, Jing Li & Qiang Liu. Distribution and Contamination Risk Assessment of dissolved trace metals in surface waters in the Yellow River Delta. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 2013, 19:1514-1530 (SCI).

6. Shuai Song, Xilai Zheng, Fadong Li*, Shoubo Tian, Guoqing Lin. Flood Routing Simulation and System Customization in a High Leakage River Channel in China. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. 2013.139:656-663 (SCI).

来源:中国科学院

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